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How to Make an Arduino Proximity Sensor: Hardware Components and More!

How to Make an Arduino Proximity Sensor-An Arduino proximity sensor is a handy, inexpensive gadget that detects the presence of an object within its sensing range. This could be anything from a human to a pet or even something as small as a bug! It’s really easy to make one yourself. 

Have you ever wanted to know how Arduino proximity sensors work?

It uses IR (infrared) waves to detect nearby objects within its sensing distance. This article will go over everything about Arduino proximity sensors. Let’s start!

How to Make an Arduino Proximity Sensor 1

 (Arduino Uno Breadboard)

What is an Arduino Proximity Sensor?

An Arduino proximity sensor is a device that senses the presence of an object in its vicinity. It consists of an infrared proximity sensor connected to an Arduino Uno circuit and a breadboard. 

It works by pulsing an LED on and off at a constant rate (frequency). By this, it measures the time taken by reflected light pulses from surrounding objects returning to it after hitting them.

How to Make an Arduino Proximity Sensor 2

(Proximity sensors icon)

Hardware Components Needed for Arduino Proximity Sensor

How to Make an Arduino Proximity Sensor 3

 ( Electronic components)

The hardware components needed for Arduino proximity sensor setup are:

A breadboard

An LED (you can use an RGB led instead of the white one)

Two resistors, each having a value within the range of 200 – 1000 ohms. (However, when using LEDs other than white ones, you need to have different values for each. This helps to get better results)

An Arduino Pro Mini board or similar.

An infrared proximity sensor module (e.g., HC SR04 Ultrasonic sensor Module -distance). This is a critical component in the setup.

Jumper Wires


Make sure you have a USB cable to connect your Arduino Uno board with the computer for code uploading purposes!

How to Make an Arduino Proximity Sensor 4

(Electronic assembling tools)

Infrared Proximity Sensor Pinout: Easy Connection Explained

How to Make an Arduino Proximity Sensor 5

( IR proximity sensor)

In brief, to easily understand the 3-pin connector of the IR sensor, they will come packed with connecting wires. The wire connectors are; black wire (output), blue wire (GND), and finally, the brown wire is VCC.

Steps to Making an Arduino Proximity Sensor

How to Make an Arduino Proximity Sensor 6

( A technician repairing a computer)

When setting up an Arduino Proximity Sensor, it is essential to understand these Arduino board pins.

VCC (5v)

This is the power supply pin to the Arduino Pro Mini board.  Therefore, it needs a voltage range of +5volts. To function properly, you should use a battery pack with at least 11V output. The Arduino’s VCC pin or 5v connects with the brown wire from the IR sensor.


Ground pins get connected with electrical circuits that need to have low resistance paths from one point to another. In this case, it’s meant for mounting all ground circuit connections on your board and the Arduino proximity sensor module. The Arduino’s GND pin connects with the blue wire from the IR sensor.

How to Make an Arduino Proximity Sensor-Echo/AO

The output (echo pin) on the HC-SR04 Distance Sensor Module is responsible for triggering the ultrasonic emission. So, this output pin goes high when a pulse starts transmitting, otherwise, it remains low. Arduino’s proximity sensor’s AO pin connection to the IR sensor is by the black wire.

 ( Image of miniature figures working on a circuit board)

Step-by-step connection and working explanation

The following are the steps to make your own Arduino proximity sensor:

(Flow chart)

How to Make an Arduino Proximity Sensor-Working explanation.

In a nutshell: this is generally how it works.

First, when an object enters the detection zone, light from the IR transmitter gets reflected by the object.

Then, the light sensor in the IR receiver generates a signal.

Consequently, this signal causes the current to flow through the circuit.

Afterward, the current flowing through the circuit powers the LED. It lights up, showing that an object is in front of the sensor.

The process above repeats itself at this particular frequency as objects enter or leave the sensing field.

How to Make an Arduino Proximity Sensor-Arduino Code

// Declare the used sensor pin <br>int sensorPin = A0;

int LED = 11; // Declare the connected LED

void setup(){

  // Start the Serial connection



void loop(){

  // Read the analog value of the sensor

  int val = analogRead(A0);

  // Print the value over Serial


  // Write the value to the LED using PWM

  analogWrite(LED, val/4);

  // Wait a little for the data to print



Arduino code works with any circuit. 

You are all set to use your proximity sensor!

6. How to Make an Arduino Proximity Sensor-Uses of Arduino Proximity Sensors

(Technician installing an electronic component)

The following are some of the primary uses and application tips of Arduino proximity sensors:

 ( Color calibrator)

7. Summary

In conclusion, we hope that you’ve enjoyed our article on what an Arduino proximity sensor is and how it works. We also discussed ways to use them in your projects and get the most out of them!

Consider sharing this article with friends and family who might be interested in making and learning more about circuit boards. If you want more information on these topics or help with making your circuit board, contact us. 

Hommer Zhao
Hallo, ik ben Hommer, de oprichter van WellPCB. Tot nu toe hebben we meer dan 4.000 klanten wereldwijd. Voor vragen kunt u gerust contact met mij opnemen. Bij voorbaat bedankt.